Several types of tests are performed on concrete and refractory materials to determine physical, engineering and chemical properties. LMATS has experienced staff that can perform and advise adequate tests to determine suitability or reliability of the existing or new concrete, ceramic or refractory products.

Visual inspection is the most common and significant test on concrete structures to determine engineering and aesthetic condition. Visual inspection can detect unacceptable flaws related to workmanship, structural serviceability and material deterioration. Some of the flaws are cracks, pop-outs, spalling, disintegration, colour change, weathering, staining, surface blemishes and lack of uniformity.

Radiographic examination is one of the conventional test methods performed on concrete structures. The intensity of radiation beam (ionising radiation) decreases (attenuation) while passing through a material. The amount of radiation attenuation depends on the quality of radiation, the density of the material and the thickness traversed. A radiograph is exposed to the attenuated radiation beam and the change in density on the radiograph is used to determine concrete condition, density, porosity, cracks, reinforcing bars and its condition (location, spacing, depth, dimensions, corrosion etc).

Ultrasonic test is conventional and contemporary test method on concrete structures. An electro-acoustic material is held in contact with the test surface and a pulse of longitudinal vibration wave is transmitted into the test material. The applied vibrations reflect (echo) from the interface between matter of different acoustic impedance property and return to the transducer. The amplitude of the reflected signal and the time taken to return to the transducer can reveal information such as strength, density, concrete thickness, cracks, laminations, reinforcing bars and its condition (location, spacing, depth, dimensions, etc)

Infrared thermography is one of the non-destructive test methods on concrete structures. The change in surface temperature (0.3degrees Celsius change) is recorded (thermogram) to determine the temperature distribution at the test surface. The change in temperature can reveal information such as leakages, cracks, laminations, reinforcing material.

Electromagnetic methods for concrete testing utilize eddy current effects. Currents in a search coil set up and eddy currents in the reinforcement material cause to change impedance in the search coil. This change in electrical impedance reveals various properties such as location and depth of reinforcing materials, etc.

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